The UAPC offers a wide array of surgical models and functional analyses aimed at investigating cardiovascular phenotypes. Examples of services offered are highlighted below. See service descriptions for further details or Contact Us.



Coronary artery ligation Models of myocardial schemia/reperfusion injury, myocardial infarction, and heart failure
Transverse Aortic Construction (TAC) Pressure overload induced hypertrophy, remodeling, and heart failure
Aortocaval Fistula (ACF)

Volume overload induced hypertrophy, remodeling, and heart failure

Skeletal Muscle Overload

Mechanical force overload of the plantaris and soleus muscles

Unilateral Diaphragm Denervation

Diaphragm atrophy and hypertrophy model



Cardiac catheterization Heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, TPR, measures of ionotropy: +/- dP/dt max, end systolic elastance, arterial elastance, preload-recruitable stroke work, and measures of lusitropy: EDPVR, tau
(Sedation required; terminal study)



Treadmill Forced running on an automated treadmill. Speed, incline, and duration can be varied. Willingness to exercise, duration of exercise, and survival can be quantified.
Swimming Chamber Forced swimming against a variable water current. Willingness to exercise, duration of exercise, and survival can be quantified.
Voluntary Running Wheel Mouse housing cage equipped with a voluntary running wheel. Mice recieve free access to a free-spinning exercise wheel. Automatic data collection of distance ran, time spent running, maximum speed, and average speed.



B-mode 2 dimensional cross sectional view provides measures of cadiac chamber dimensions
M-mode Cardiac chamber dimensions: LVESD, LVEDD, wall diameter, cardiac mass
Systolic function: fractional shortening, ejection fraction, cardiac output
(Unsedated or sedated; serial measurements)
Pulse-wave Doppler Blood flow velocities, cardiac output, valvular gradients and function
Diastolic function: mitral valve indices (EA ratio)
(anesthesia required; serial measurements)
Tissue Doppler Strain rate, ventricle dyssynchrony, myocardial wall velocities: ventricle systole (Sm), early relaxation (Em), atrial systole (Am), and Em/Am ratio
(anesthesia required; serial measurements)
Strain Rate Speckle-tracking of B-mode aqruired image provides strain and strain rate of various segments of the ventricle wall during systole or diastole

Functional Assessment


Plethysmography Breathing rate, tidal volume, minute volume, inspiration time, expiration time, peak inspiratory flow, peak expiratory flow, respiratory pause time
(conscious and un-restrained; serial measurements)
Whole Mouse Muscle Test System Evaluation of intact muscles of mice either in situ, ex vivo, or isolated in vivo; force and length can both me controlled and measured; measurements include: length-tension, force-velocity, force-frequency, stiffness, fatigue, and work loops